Climate is affected by changes in solar energy, atmosphere and ocean, and changes in the surface of the Earth. In recent years, the quality of air compositions such as greenhouse gases and aerosols caused by human activities also affect climate change.
The concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, which has rapidly increased since the Industrial Revolution, is causing global warming.
The purpose is to provide information on long-term climate change in the world and in Korea, and to analyze the characteristics of changes in climate change causative substances so that they can be utilized in policies to respond to climate change.
Comprehensive climate change monitoring information is provided by selecting Essesntial Climate Variables (ECVs) of the Korean Peninsula and discovering and providing related information as well as the long-term effects of each variable.
|Atmosphere (Atmospheric Composition)||Greenhouse gas (CO2, CH4, SF6, N2O, CFCs)||Representative gas that induces global warming by changing the long-wave radiation properties of the Earth's atmosphere|
|Reactive gases (CO, O3, NOx, SO2)||Representative gaseous substances released into the atmosphere by human or natural activities. These substances have a detrimental effect on humans and organisms, are involved in the generation and extinction of greenhouse gases, and affect climate change through the formation of aerosols although the period of stay in the atmosphere is short.|
|Aerosol (optical depth, angstrom index, PM10, number concentration of condensation nuclei)||Solid and liquid substances suspended in the atmosphere with sizes ranging 0.001 to 100 ㎛. Aerosols floating in the atmosphere directly absorb and scatter light, or contribute to global warming or cooling by affecting the formation and characteristics of clouds.|
|Stratospheric ozone (all ozone, vertical distribution of ozone)||Approximately 90 % of ozone in Earth's atmosphere is present in the stratosphere. The concentration of ozone is generally the highest at an altitude of 15 to 30 km, called the ozone layer.|
|Ultraviolet light (Total UV Index, Ultraviolet A, B)||A term referring to electromagnetic waves with a shorter wavelength than visible rays in the spectrum of sunlight.|
|Atmospheric radiation (net radiation, direct solar radiation)||Solar energy is used to heat climate systems such as the atmosphere and the Earth's surface. Therefore, it is the primary driving force that moves the Earth's atmosphere and is an essential energy source for all living things on Earth.|
|Atmosphere (meteorological factor)||Temperatures||The most important variable that determines the state of the climate system. Temperature is used to detect climate change and assess the impact of artificial and natural factors on climate change.|
|Precipitation||Precipitation (cycle, intensity, quantity) is a major factor in describing the state of the climate system. It is a necessary variable to analyze precipitation variability and extreme events.|
|Wind direction and speed||Wind is a major driver of atmospheric and ocean circulation. It transports large amounts of heat, fresh water, and carbon globally, and thus is an important data for detecting climate change and evaluating climate models.|
|Water vapor||Water vapor in the atmosphere supplied by evaporation of water from the surface of the earth affects cloud formation. Water vapor serves as an important feedback to the climate system composed of clouds and radiation|
|Cloud cover||Cloud cover is an important factor affecting the long- and short-wave radiation energy balance of the Sun and the Earth and the water balance of the Earth's surface. This has a huge impact on the planet's climate.|
|Ground||Snow cover||The snow-covered surface has a high albedo that blocks heat conduction and supplies moisture to the soil.|
|Ocean||Sea level||Sea level rise caused by climate change can lead to coastal flooding and erosion in low-lying areas. These changes have a profound impact on coastal ecosystems, water resources and human activities.|
|Surface sea temperature||Oceans have a greater heat capacity than the atmosphere. Heat stored in the upper layer of the ocean is mainly transported by ocean currents and affects the local climate or the global climate by the north-south circulation.|
|Thaw||Thaw reflects solar energy and keeps the polar regions cool, thereby keeping the average temperature of the earth constant. Thaw area is rapidly decreasing due to global warming.|
|Sea surface wind||Strong storms and typhoons affect not only great social and economic damage, but also human life and ecosystem, destruction of infrastructure, and loss of ships. In particular, it affects maritime safety, marine transport, damage to building structures, as well as erosion of beaches.|